Trapped-ion quantum computers have demonstrated high-performance gate operations in registers of about ten qubits. However, scaling up and parallelizing quantum computations with long one-dimensional (1D) ion strings is an outstanding challenge due to the global nature of the motional modes of the ions, which mediate qubit-qubit couplings. Here, we devise methods to implement scalable and parallel entangling gates by using engineered localized phonon modes. We propose to tailor such localized modes by tuning the local potential of individual ions with programmable optical tweezers. Localized modes of small subsets of qubits form the basis to perform entangling gates on these subsets in parallel. We demonstrate the inherent scalability of this approach by presenting analytical and numerical results for long 1D ion chains and even for infinite chains of uniformly spaced ions. Furthermore, we show that combining our methods with optimal coherent control techniques allows realization of maximally dense universal parallelized quantum circuits.